Glossary

CMR

Definition

The CMR (Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road) is a United Nations convention devised to standardize the legal framework governing international road transportation of goods. Initiated in Geneva on May 19, 1956, this convention delineates the rights, duties, and liabilities of carriers, shippers, and consignees involved in international road transport, aiming to foster trade efficiency and mitigate disputes

— sennder Team

FAQ

The CMR convention is crucial in logistics as it presents a harmonized legal landscape for international road transport of goods, thereby minimizing misunderstandings and disputes, which in turn, facilitates smoother and more efficient cross-border goods movement. This enhanced efficiency in goods movement significantly contributes to global supply chain efficiency
The CMR Convention encompasses various pivotal provisions: Consignment Note: A document confirming the contract of carriage, which must be signed by both the sender and the carrier, serving as a record of the carrier's responsibilities​​. Carrier Responsibilities and Liabilities: Carriers are held accountable for total or partial loss of, or damage to the goods from the time they are collected until they are delivered​1​. Sender Responsibilities: Includes filling out the consignment note and providing all necessary transport documents, and being liable for any inaccurate or inadequate entries in these documents​. Claims and Limitation Periods: In case of loss, damage, or delay, claims can be filed against the carrier, with certain limitation periods provided for such claims​​. Under CFR, the risk transfers to the buyer once the goods are loaded onto the vessel at the port of origin, but neither the seller nor the buyer is obligated to insure the goods​5​. In FOB terms, both the cost and the risk transfer at the point of export​​. CIF is similar to CFR; however, under CIF, the seller is also required to provide insurance coverage for the goods during transit​​.
As of 2023, a considerable number of countries, primarily from Europe, along with some from Asia and Africa, are party to the CMR Convention or its electronic protocol (eCMR). These include Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Iran, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, The Netherlands, Norway, Oman, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Tajikistan, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan​.

Example or usage in road freight logistics:

A road freight carrier based in Germany is contracted to transport a shipment of goods from Germany to Spain. As both countries are party to the CMR Convention, the carrier and the shipper must adhere to the Convention's provisions concerning international road transportation of the goods. The carrier ensures safe and timely transportation, provides the necessary CMR consignment note, and remains liable for any loss, damage, or delay that may occur during the transportation process, as per the CMR Convention.

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